Getting started with Tezos

This short tutorial illustrates the use of the various Tezos binaries as well as some concepts about the network.

The Binaries

After a successful compilation, you should have the following binaries:

  • tezos-node: the tezos daemon itself (see Node);

  • tezos-client: a command-line client and basic wallet (see Client);

  • tezos-admin-client: administration tool for the node;

  • tezos-{baker,endorser,accuser}-*: daemons to bake, endorse and accuse on the Tezos network (see How to run Tezos);

  • tezos-validator: a daemon for validating and applying operations in blocks (see Validator)

  • tezos-signer: a client to remotely sign operations or blocks (see Signer);

  • tezos-codec: a utility for documenting the data encodings and for performing data encoding/decoding (see Codec)

  • tezos-protocol-compiler: a domain-specific compiler for Tezos protocols (see Protocol compiler)

  • tezos-snoop: a tool for modeling the performance of any piece of OCaml code, based on benchmarking (see Benchmarking with Snoop)

The daemons other than the node are suffixed with the name of the protocol they are bound to. For instance, tezos-baker-008-PtEdo2Zk is the baker for the Edo protocol, and tezos-baker-alpha is the baker of the development protocol. The tezos-node daemon is not suffixed by any protocol name, because it is independent of the economic protocol. See also the Node Protocol section below.

Read The Manual

All the Tezos binaries provide the --help option to display information about their usage, including the available options and the possible parameters.

Additionally, most of the above binaries (i.e., all but the node, the validator, and the compiler) provide a textual manual that can be obtained with the command man, whose verbosity can be increased with -v, for example:

tezos-client man -v 3

It is also possible to get information on a specific command in the manual with man <command>:

tezos-client man set

To see the usage of one specific command, you may also type the command without arguments, which display its possible completions and options:

tezos-client transfer

However, beware that the commands available on the client depend on the specific protocol run by the node. For instance, transfer is not available when the node runs the genesis protocol, which may happen for a few minutes when launching a node for the first time, or when the client is not connected to a node. In the last case, the above command generates a warning:

Warning:
  Failed to acquire the protocol version from the node

To get the manual of a client command for a protocol other than that used by the node (or even when not connected to a node), use the option --protocol, e.g.:

tezos-client --protocol ProtoALphaALph man transfer

Note that you can get the list of protocols known to the client with:

tezos-client list understood protocols

The full command line documentation of the Tezos binaries supporting the man command is also available online: Command Line Interface.

Node

The node is the main actor of the Tezos blockchain and it has two main functions: running the gossip network and updating the context. The gossip network is where all Tezos nodes exchange blocks and operations with each other (see Admin Client to monitor p2p connections). Using this peer-to-peer network, an operation originated by a user can hop several times through other nodes until it finds its way in a block baked by a baker. Using the blocks it receives on the gossip network the shell also keeps up to date the current context, that is the full state of the blockchain shared by all peers. Approximately every minute a new block is created and, when the shell receives it, it applies each operation in the block to its current context and computes a new context. The last block received on a chain is also called the head of that chain. Each new head is then advertised by the node to its peers, disseminating this information to build a consensus across the network.

Other than passively observing the network, your node can also inject its own new operations when instructed by the tezos-client and even send new blocks when guided by the tezos-baker-*. The node has also a view of the multiple chains that may exist concurrently and selects the best one based on its fitness (see Proof-of-stake in Tezos).

Node Identity

First, we need to generate a new identity for the node to connect to the network:

tezos-node identity generate

The identity comprises a pair of cryptographic keys that nodes use to encrypt messages sent to each other, and an antispam-PoW stamp proving that enough computing power has been dedicated to creating this identity. Note that this is merely a network identity and it is not related in any way to a Tezos address on the blockchain.

If you wish to run your node on a test network, now is also a good time to configure your node (see Multinetwork Node).

Node Synchronization

Whenever a node starts, it tries to retrieve the most current head of the chain from its peers. This can be a long process if there are many blocks to retrieve (e.g. when a node is launched for the first time or has been out of sync for a while), or on a slow network connection. The mechanism of Snapshots can help in reducing the synchronization time.

Once the synchronization is complete, the node is said to be bootstrapped. Some operations require the node to be bootstrapped.

Node Protocol

A Tezos node can switch from one protocol to another during its execution. This typically happens during the synchronization phase when a node launches for the first time. The node starts with the genesis protocol and then goes through all previous protocols until it finally switches to the current protocol.

Throughout the documentation, Alpha refers to the protocol in the src/proto_alpha directory of the master branch, that is, a protocol under development, which serves as a basis to propose replacements for the currently active protocol. The Alpha protocol is used by default in sandbox mode and in the various test suites.

Storage

All blockchain data is stored by the node under a data directory, which by default is $HOME/.tezos-node/.

If for some reason your node is misbehaving or there has been an upgrade of the network, it is safe to remove this directory, it just means that your node will take some time to resync the chain.

If removing this directory, please note that if it took you a long time to compute your node identity, keep the identity.json file and instead only remove its child store, context and ``protocol``(if any) sub-directories.

If you are also running a baker, make sure that it is configured to access the data directory of the node (see how to run a baker).

RPC Interface

The only programming interface to the node is through JSON RPC calls and it is disabled by default. More detailed documentation can be found in the RPC index. The RPC interface must be enabled for the clients to communicate with the node but it should not be publicly accessible on the internet. With the following command, it is available uniquely on the localhost address of your machine, on the default port 8732.

tezos-node run --rpc-addr 127.0.0.1

Node configuration

Many options of the node can be configured when running the node:

  • RPC parameters (e.g. the port number for listening to RPC requests using option --rpc-addr)

  • The directory where the node stores local data (using option --data-dir)

  • Network parameters (e.g. the number of connections to peers, using option --connections)

  • Validator and mempool parameters

  • Logging options.

The list of configurable options can be obtained using the following command:

tezos-node run --help

You can read more about the node configuration and its private mode.

Besides listening from requests from the client, the node listens to connections from peers, by default on port 9732 (this can be changed using option --net-addr), so it’s advisable to open incoming connections to that port.

Summing up

Putting together all the above instructions, you may want to run a node as follows:

# Download a snapshot for your target network, e.g. <test-net>:
wget <snapshot-url> -O <snapshot-file>
# Configure the node for running on <test-net>:
tezos-node config init --data-dir ~/.tezos-node-<test-net> --network <test-net>
# Import the snapshot into the node data directory:
tezos-node snapshot --data-dir ~/.tezos-node-<test-net> import --block <block-hash> <snapshot-file>
# Run the node:
tezos-node run --data-dir ~/.tezos-node-<test-net> --rpc-addr 127.0.0.1

Client

Tezos client can be used to interact with the node, it can query its status or ask the node to perform some actions. For example, after starting your node you can check if it has finished synchronizing (see Synchronisation heuristic) using:

tezos-client bootstrapped

This call will hang and return only when the node is synchronized (recall that this is much faster when starting a node from a snapshot). Once the above command returns, we can check what is the current timestamp of the head of the chain (time is in UTC so it may differ from your local time):

tezos-client get timestamp

You can also use the above command before the node is bootstrapped, from another terminal. However, recall that the commands available on the client depend on the specific protocol run by the node. For instance, get timestamp isn’t available when the node runs the genesis protocol, which may happen for a few minutes when launching a node for the first time.

Get Free Tez

To test the networks and help users get familiar with the system, on test networks you can obtain free tez from a faucet.

This will provide a faucet account in the form of a JSON file tz1__xxxxxxxxx__.json, that can be activated with the following command:

tezos-client activate account alice with "tz1__xxxxxxxxx__.json"

If you run Tezos using docker images (via the tezos-docker-manager.sh script, renamed as edo2net.sh to run the Edo2net test network for instance), you should prefix the file with container: in order to copy it into the docker image:

./edo2net.sh client activate account alice with "container:tz1__xxxxxxxxx__.json"

Let’s check the balance of the new account with:

tezos-client get balance for alice

Please preserve the JSON file. It will be necessary in order to reactivate the faucet account when migrating between test networks, e.g., from one protocol to the next, or in the event the test network is reset.

Please drink carefully and don’t abuse the faucet: it only contains 30,000 faucet accounts for a total amount of ꜩ760,000,000.

A Simple Wallet

The client is also a basic wallet and after the activation above you will notice that the client data directory (by default, ~/.tezos-client) has been populated with 3 files public_key_hashs, public_keys and secret_keys. The content of each file is in JSON and keeps the mapping between aliases (e.g., alice) and the kind of keys indicated by the name of each file. Secret keys should be stored on disk encrypted with a password except when using a hardware wallet (see Ledger support). An additional file contracts contains the addresses of smart contracts, which have the form KT1….

We can, for example, generate a new pair of keys, which can be used locally with the alias bob:

$ tezos-client gen keys bob

To check the account (also called a contract) for Bob has been created:

$ tezos-client list known contracts

Notice that by default, the keys were stored unencrypted, which is fine in our test example. In more realistic scenarios, you should supply the option --encrypted when generating a new account:

$ tezos-client gen keys tom --encrypted

Tezos support three different ECC (Elliptic-Curve Cryptography) schemes: Ed25519, secp256k1 (the one used in Bitcoin), and P-256 (also called secp256r1). The two latter curves have been added for interoperability with Bitcoin and Hardware Security Modules (HSMs) mostly. Unless your use case requires those, you should probably use Ed25519. We use a verified library for Ed25519, and it is generally recommended over other curves by the crypto community, for performance and security reasons.

Make sure to make a back-up of the client data directory and that the password protecting your secret keys is properly managed (if you stored them encrypted).

For more advanced key management we offer ledger support and a remote signer.

Transfers and Receipts

To fund our newly created account for Bob, we need to transfer some tez using the transfer operation. Every operation returns a receipt that recapitulates all the effects of the operation on the blockchain. A useful option for any operation is --dry-run, which instructs the client to simulate the operation without actually sending it to the network, so that we can inspect its receipt.

Let’s try:

tezos-client transfer 1 from alice to bob --dry-run

Fatal error:
  The operation will burn ꜩ0.257 which is higher than the configured burn cap (ꜩ0).
   Use `--burn-cap 0.257` to emit this operation.

The client asks the node to validate the operation (without sending it) and obtains an error. The reason is that when we fund a new address we are also storing it on the blockchain. Any storage on chain has a cost associated to it which should be accounted for either by paying a fee to a baker or by destroying (burning) some tez. This is particularly important to protect the system from spam. Because storing an address requires burning ꜩ0.257 and the client has a default of 0, we need to explicitly set a cap on the amount that we allow to burn:

tezos-client transfer 1 from alice to bob --dry-run --burn-cap 0.257

This should do it and you should see a rather long receipt being produced, here’s an excerpt:

...
Simulation result:
  Manager signed operations:
    From: tz1RjtZUVeLhADFHDL8UwDZA6vjWWhojpu5w
    Fee to the baker: ꜩ0.001259
    ...
    Balance updates:
      tz1RjtZUVeLhADFHDL8UwDZA6vjWWhojpu5w ............ -ꜩ0.001259
      fees(tz1Ke2h7sDdakHJQh8WX4Z372du1KChsksyU,72) ... +ꜩ0.001259
    Revelation of manager public key:
      Contract: tz1RjtZUVeLhADFHDL8UwDZA6vjWWhojpu5w
      Key: edpkuK4o4ZGyNHKrQqAox7hELeKEceg5isH18CCYUaQ3tF7xZ8HW3X
      ...
  Manager signed operations:
    From: tz1RjtZUVeLhADFHDL8UwDZA6vjWWhojpu5w
    Fee to the baker: ꜩ0.001179
    ...
    Balance updates:
      tz1RjtZUVeLhADFHDL8UwDZA6vjWWhojpu5w ............ -ꜩ0.001179
      fees(tz1Ke2h7sDdakHJQh8WX4Z372du1KChsksyU,72) ... +ꜩ0.001179
    Transaction:
      Amount: ꜩ1
      From: tz1RjtZUVeLhADFHDL8UwDZA6vjWWhojpu5w
      To: tz1Rk5HA9SANn3bjo4qMXTZettPjjKMG14Ph
      ...
      Balance updates:
        tz1RjtZUVeLhADFHDL8UwDZA6vjWWhojpu5w ... -ꜩ1
        tz1Rk5HA9SANn3bjo4qMXTZettPjjKMG14Ph ... +ꜩ1
        tz1RjtZUVeLhADFHDL8UwDZA6vjWWhojpu5w ... -ꜩ0.257

The client does a bit of magic to simplify our life and here we see that many details were automatically set for us. Surprisingly, our transfer operation resulted in two operations, first a revelation, and then a transfer. Alice’s address, obtained from the faucet, is already present on the blockchain, but only in the form of a public key hash tz1Rj...5w. To sign operations, Alice needs to first reveal the public key edpkuk...3X behind the hash, so that other users can verify her signatures. The client is kind enough to prepend a reveal operation before the first transfer of a new address, this has to be done only once, future transfers will consist of a single operation as expected.

Another interesting thing we learn from the receipt is that there are more costs being added on top of the transfer and the burn: fees. To encourage a baker to include our operation, and in general to pay for the cost of running the blockchain, each operation usually includes a fee that goes to the baker. Fees are variable over time and depend on many factors but the tezos client selects a default for us.

The last important bit of our receipt is the balance updates that resume which address is being debited or credited of a certain amount. We see in this case that baker tz1Ke...yU is being credited one fee for each operation, that Bob’s address tz1Rk...Ph gets 1 tez and that Alice pays the transfer, the burn, and the two fees.

Now that we have a clear picture of what we are going to pay we can execute the transfer for real, without the dry-run option. You will notice that the client hangs for a few seconds before producing the receipt because after injecting the operation in your local node it is waiting for it to be included by some baker on the network. Once it receives a block with the operation inside it will return the receipt.

It is advisable to wait for several blocks to consider the transaction as final, and for an important operation we advise to wait for 60 blocks.

In the rare case when an operation is lost, how can we be sure that it will not be included in any future block, and then we may re-emit it? After 60 blocks a transaction is considered invalid and can’t be included anymore in a block. Furthermore each operation has a counter (explained in more detail later) that prevents replays so it is usually safe to re-emit an operation that seems lost.

Implicit Accounts and Smart Contracts

In Tezos there are two kinds of accounts: implicit accounts and smart contracts.

  • The implicit accounts are the addresses starting with tz1, tz2, and tz3 we have used up to now. They are created with a transfer operation to the account public key hash.

  • Smart contracts have addresses starting with KT1 and are created with an origination operation. They don’t have a corresponding secret key and they run Michelson code each time they receive a transaction.

Let’s originate our first contract and call it id:

tezos-client originate contract id transferring 1 from alice \
             running ./tests_python/contracts_alpha/attic/id.tz \
             --init '"hello"' --burn-cap 0.4

The initial balance is ꜩ1, generously provided by implicit account alice. The contract stores a Michelson program id.tz (found in file ./tests_python/contracts_alpha/attic/id.tz), with Michelson value "hello" as initial storage (the extra quotes are needed to avoid shell expansion). The parameter --burn-cap specifies the maximal fee the user is willing to pay for this operation, the actual fee being determined by the system.

A Michelson contract is expressed as a pure function, mapping a pair (parameter, storage) to a pair (list_of_operations, storage). However, when this pure function is applied to the blockchain state, it can be seen as an object with a single method taking one parameter (parameter), and with a single attribute (storage). The method updates the state (the storage), and submits operations as a side effect.

For the sake of this example, here is the id.tz contract:

parameter string;
storage string;
code {CAR; NIL operation; PAIR};

It specifies the types for the parameter and storage, and implements a function which updates the storage with the value passed as a parameter and returns this new storage together with an empty list of operations.

Gas and Storage Costs

A quick look at the balance updates on the receipt shows that on top of funding the contract with ꜩ1, alice was also charged an extra cost that is burnt. This cost comes from the storage and is shown in the line Paid storage size diff: 46 bytes, 41 for the contract and 5 for the string "hello". Given that a contract saves its data on the public blockchain that every node stores, it is necessary to charge a fee per byte to avoid abuse and encourage lean programs.

Let’s see what calling a program with a new argument would look like with the --dry-run option:

tezos-client transfer 0 from alice to id --arg '"world"' --dry-run

The transaction would successfully update the storage but this time it wouldn’t cost us anything more than the fee, the reason is that the storage for "world" is the same as for "hello", which has already been paid for. To store more we’ll need to pay more, you can try by passing a longer string.

The other cost associated with running contracts is the gas, which measures how long does a program take to compute. Contrary to storage there is no cost per gas unit, a transfer can require as much gas as it wants, however a baker that has to choose among several transactions is much more likely to include a low gas one because it’s cheaper to run and validate. At the same time, bakers also give priority to high fee transactions. This means that there is an implicit cost for gas that is related to the fee offered versus the gas and fees of other transactions.

If you are happy with the gas and storage of your transaction you can run it for real, however it is always a good idea to set an explicit limit for both. The transaction fails if any of the two limits are passed. Note that the storage limit sets an upper bound to the storage size difference, so in our case, it may be 0 because our new value does not increase at all the storage size.

tezos-client transfer 0 from alice to id --arg '"world"' \
                                         --gas-limit 11375 \
                                         --storage-limit 0

A baker is more likely to include an operation with lower gas and storage limits because it takes fewer resources to execute so it is in the best interest of the user to pick limits that are as close as possible to the actual use. In this case, you may have to specify some fees as the baker is expecting some for the resource usage. Otherwise, you can force a low fee operation using the –force-low-fee, with the risk that no baker will include it.

More test contracts can be found in directory tests_python/contracts_alpha/. Advanced documentation of the smart contract language is available here.

Validation

The node allows validating an operation before submitting it to the network by simply simulating the application of the operation to the current context. Without this mechanism, if you just send an invalid operation (e.g. sending more tokens than you own), the node would broadcast it and when it is included in a block you would have to pay the usual fee even if it won’t have an effect on the context. To avoid this case the client first asks the node to validate the transaction and only then sends it.

The same validation is used when you pass the option --dry-run: the receipt that you see is actually a simulated one. The only difference is that, when this option is supplied, the transaction is not sent even if it proves to be valid.

Another important use of validation is to determine gas and storage limits. The node first simulates the execution of a Michelson program and tracks the amount of gas and storage that has been consumed. Then the client sends the transaction with the right limits for gas and storage based on those indicated by the node. This is why we were able to submit transactions without specifying these limits: they were computed for us.

More information on validation can be found here.

It’s RPCs all the Way Down

The client communicates with the node uniquely through RPC calls so make sure that the node is listening on the right ports and that the ports are open. For example the get timestamp command above is a shortcut for:

tezos-client rpc get /chains/main/blocks/head/header/shell

The client tries to simplify common tasks as much as possible, however if you want to query the node for more specific information you’ll have to resort to RPCs. For example to check the value of important constants in Tezos, which may differ between Mainnet and other test networks, you can use:

tezos-client rpc get /chains/main/blocks/head/context/constants | jq
{
  "proof_of_work_nonce_size": 8,
  "nonce_length": 32,
  "max_anon_ops_per_block": 132,
  "max_operation_data_length": 32768,
  "preserved_cycles": 5,
  "blocks_per_cycle": 4096,
  "blocks_per_commitment": 32,
  "blocks_per_roll_snapshot": 256,
  "blocks_per_voting_period": 32768,
  "time_between_blocks": [
    "60",
    "75"
  ],
  "endorsers_per_block": 32,
  "hard_gas_limit_per_operation": "400000",
  "hard_gas_limit_per_block": "4000000",
  "proof_of_work_threshold": "70368744177663",
  "tokens_per_roll": "10000000000",
  "michelson_maximum_type_size": 1000,
  "seed_nonce_revelation_tip": "125000",
  "origination_burn": "257000",
  "block_security_deposit": "48000000",
  "endorsement_security_deposit": "6000000",
  "block_reward": "0",
  "endorsement_reward": "0",
  "cost_per_byte": "1000",
  "hard_storage_limit_per_operation": "60000"
}

Another interesting use of RPCs is to inspect the receipts of the operations of a block:

tezos-client rpc get /chains/main/blocks/head/operations

It is also possible to review the receipt of the whole block:

tezos-client rpc get /chains/main/blocks/head/metadata

An interesting block receipt is the one produced at the end of a cycle as many delegates receive back part of their unfrozen accounts.

You can find more info in the RPCs’ page.

Other binaries

In this short tutorial we will not use some other binaries, but let as briefly review their roles.

Validator

The Tezos validator (tezos-validator) is an auxiliary daemon that is launched by tezos-node in order to validate operations in parallel to its main process (unless the option --singleprocess is given). It also applies the valid operations in a block and computes the resulting context.

It is not meant to be invoked directly by users.

Codec

The Tezos codec (tezos-codec) is a utility that:

  • provides documentation for all the encodings used in the tezos-node (and other binaries), and

  • allows to convert from JSON to binary and vice-versa for all these encodings.

It is meant to be used by developers for tests, for generating documentation when writing libraries that share data with the node, for light scripting, etc.

Protocol compiler

The protocol compiler (tezos-protocol-compiler) can compile protocols within the limited environment that the shell provides. This environment is limited to a restricted set of libraries in order to constrain the possible behavior of the protocols.

It is meant to be used:

  • by developers to compile the protocol under developement,

  • by the packaging process to compile protocols that are pre-linked in the binaries,

  • by the Tezos node when there is an on-chain update to a protocol that is not pre-linked with the binary.

Summary

In this tutorial, you have learned:

  • to start a Tezos node and set up its basic configuration;

  • to use the Tezos client to create implict accounts and do transfers between them;

  • to deploy and interact with a simple predefined smart contract;

  • to distinguish between the various costs associated to transactions such as burnt tez, fees, storage costs, and gas consumption;

  • some further concepts such as transaction validation and the RPC interface;

  • the role of other binaries, less frequently used than the client and the node.

You may now explore Tezos further, and enjoy using it!